Gourmet picnic with tomato displays and exhibits sounds fun and worth exploring if you’re in the neighborhood of Minot, North Dakota during the Great Tomato Festival. There are about 28 more tomato festivals in the United States including the Thomas Jefferson Tomatoe Faire in Virginia.


by Rena


1860s New Cooking Gadgets

  • Eggbeater with rack-and-pinion movement
  • Chuck wagon 1866

1860s New Foods

  • Perrier water
  • Canned pork & beans
  • Canned soup
  • Tabasco Sauce
  • White Rock Spring Water
  • Peerless Wafer
  • Cold breakfast food (Granula)
  • Gulden Mustard Fish & Chips (England)
  • Folgers coffee (pre-roasted & ground)
  • McDougall flour (English) in US
  • Peanuts as snack food
  • Text printed on “Conversation” candy
  • Fleischmann’s compressed yeast
  • Eggs Benedict (Delmonico, 1860)

1860s New Food Companies

  • Arm & Hammer
  • Cargill
  • Bassett
  • Schrafft
  • DelMonte
  • Bay Sugar Refining
  • Royal Baking Powder
  • Chase & Sanborn
  • Goodman’s Matzohs
  • Ghiardelli
  • Nestle
  • Tobler
  • Armour meat-packing factory: 1868
  • Chicago Union stockyards: 1865
  • Louis-Dreyfus, grain trader

1860s Food Industry Beginnings

  • Pasteurization – sterilization by heat & pressure: 1864
  • Demonstration of starch produced by photosynthesis
  • Roller mills (stone)
  • Flour mill with middling (bran & outer grain layer) purifier
  • “Patent” flour (double ground)
  • Mechanical refrigerator: 1861
  • Ice machine: 1865
  • Ovaltine testing
  • Salmon cannery: 1864
  • Tin can with key opener
  • Thinner steel for cans
  • Machine-cut cans
  • Calcium chloride added to boiling water, speeding canning time
  • US Pretzel bakery 1861

1860s Farming Progress

  • US Department of Agriculture Homestead Act
  • Marsh reaper
  • Check-row corn planter
  • Massachusetts Agricultural College (UMass)
  • British Food & Drugs Act
  • Union starves South during Civil War
  • Wheat futures
  • Wide-scale cattle theft (rustling)
  • Steam trawlers import fish to England (thus, “fish & chips”)

1860s Timeline


by Rena

Baking animation by Rena Goff


1870s New Foods

  • Saccharin
  • Cubed sugar
  • Synthetic vanilla
  • Rootbeer
  • Wheatena
  • Nestle’s Infant Milk Food
  • Milk chocolate
  • Ice cream soda
  • Commercial production of margarine
  • Japanese beef-eating taboo ends (c. 1870)
  • Chewing Gum from chicle
  • Tone Brothers [spices and coffee]

1870s New Cooking Gadgets

  • Can opener with cutting wheel.
  • Four-tined silver fork, beginning the end of eating with knife.
  • Square bottomed paper-bags.

1870s New Food Companies

  • Lipton
  • Pillsbury & Co.
  • F. & J. Heinz
  • Quaker Mills
  • Hills Brothers
  • Grand Union Tea Co.
  • Confectioner’s Journal

1870s Food Industry Beginnings

  • Milking machines
  • Glass milk bottles
  • Orange crates
  • Pressure cooking in food canning: 1874
  • Frozen meat shipments: 1877
  • Mechanical cream separator
  • Porcelain rollers make roller-milling flour (wheat germ removal) standard practice
  • William Underwood first to register U.S. food trademark (Red Devil)

1870s Farming Progress

  • Bison herds disappearing
  • Large US agricultural exports
  • European farm land shortage
  • Quantity banana imports to US
  • Long-distance cattle driving
  • Barbed wire fences
  • Vast US acreage for farming and cattle ranches

1870s Timelines


by Rena

1880s kitchen

1880s School of Cookery

mason jar.

1880s New Cooking Gadgets

Hand cream-separators
Lenox China
Ball-Mason jars introduced [invented in 1857]

1880s New Foods

  • Malted milk
  • Powdered pea and beet soups
  • Evaporated milk
  • Aunt Jemima Pancake Flour
  • Coca-Cola
  • Moxie
  • Dr. Pepper
  • Thomas’s English muffins
  • Oscar Mayer wieners
  • Salada Tea
  • Tetley Tea
  • Log Cabin Syrup
  • Morton’s salt
  • Canned meat and fruit in stores: 1880

1880s New Food Companies

  • McCormick Spices
  • R. T. French
  • Maxwell House
  • B. H. Kroger
  • ConAgra
  • White Lily Foods
  • Lever Brothers
  • Calumet Baking Powder
  • Diamond Crystal Salt
  • American Cereal
  • Manischewitz
  • Pillsbury-Washburn Flour Mills
  • L’Ecole de Cordon Bleu

    1880s Food Industry Beginnings

  • Packaging of grain commodities
  • Efficiencies in railroad meat shipments
  • Pea-viner and podder machine
  • Commercial aluminum production
  • Ice-making plants start replacing ice-cutting industry
  • Self-service restaurant
  • Vending machines for gum 1888

    1880s Farming Progress

  • Long cattle-drives end as railroads enter Texas



by Rena

1899 cook book, American Pure Food Cook Book & Household Economist.

1890s New Cooking Gadgets

  • Electric range (though unreliable)
  • Aluminum saucepan
  • Chantilly silver pattern

1890s New Foods

  • Minute Tapioca
  • Condensed soup
  • Fig Newtons
  • Canned pineapple
  • Knox’s Gelatin
  • Shredded Wheat
  • Canada Dry Ginger Ale
  • Grape Nuts
  • Cream of Wheat
  • Postum
  • Jell-O
  • Tootsie Rolls, 1896
  • Swans Down Cake Flour
  • Uneeda Biscuits
  • Entenmann bakery products
  • Pepsi-Cola
  • Wesson Oil
  • Cracker Jacks
  • Bottled Coca-Cola
  • Crepes Suzettes
  • Oysters Rockefeller
  • Published brownie recipe
  • US brunch fashionable English lunch
  • S&H Food Stamps
  • Public school hot lunches
  • Beef Stroganoff

1890s New Food Companies

  • Quaker Oats
  • Beech-Nut
  • Beatrice Foods
  • National Biscuit
  • Baker’s Coconut
  • Smucker
  • Hobart
  • American Beet Sugar

1890s Food Industry Beginnings

  • Bottle capping machine
  • Vacuum flask
  • Automatic bottle-blowing machine
  • Electric coffee mill
  • Diner
  • Full page food ad in national magazine (Van Camp in 1894)
  • Coca-Cola Company bought for $2,300
  • US pizza parlor
  • 57 Varieties ad campaign
  • Campbell adopts red & white labels (inspired by Cornell football uniforms)

1890s Farming Progress

  • US gasoline tractor
  • Butterfat measurement
  • Wheat futures hedging

1890s Timelines

Cuba New York is home to the Cuba Cheese Museum housed in a modern building, but here is a photo of an early cheese manufacturing plant (click their history tab) along with commercial cheese-making history from upstate New York to Wisconsin.


by Rena

Acorns are everywhere in October…you may wonder “Why don’t we eat these?” The answer: they are bitter, and without rinsing some could be fatal. But native Americans and early Americans used them and lived. wiki.

Maple Syrup

by Rena

Maple syrup making in North America… Visit the Maple Museum in New Hampshire with a taste-testing bar and authentic sugarhouse, and the American Maple Museum in the Adirondack region of New York. For another syrup sweetener, see Sorghum.