1920-1939

Women were now ensconced in a modern world. They grew up full of hope and wide-eyed at in the “scientific method” of cookery, and “domestic science” yet lived through the tragedies of WWI, and struggled in the depression years, forming frugal habits they would not forget for a lifetime. By the 1930s electricity was available in most kitchens, even in rural areas of the country.

The following articles contain details of this time period:

1930s Vintage Electric Stove.

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c. 1933: A Cooking Secret 200 Years Old.
Westinghouse Electric Ranges.

Free/$24

Sample Text:

The old books tell us how the tables were spread at dinner time in a long low-ceilinged room, and how the candle light was richly reflected in pewter and copper and silver…. Beside the great stone fireplace was set the Dutch Oven, built into the stone and having a door of iron. Before the cooking was to be done, this square oven was heated from underneath by a wood fire. When it was hot, the glowing coals were scraped out, the food put in, the door swung shut and latched….In this sealed oven, the food was rather quickly brought to a browning temperature, and then, because no more heat was applied, the temperature gradually receded during the cooking period. In the case of meats, this resulted in a carmelizing, cooking illustration.or searing of the outside. The flavourous juices were sealed in, driven toward the center, and then the interior of the meat was cooked by the slow penetration of heat from the oven. The savory steam that rose from the meat during the cooking was held in the oven and produced the same result as constant basting, preventing the meat from becoming hard and dry. This same thing was true of vegetables, of puddings and pastries…. the secret lay in three factors of this cooking method: first, the completely sealed oven; second, the high temperature required for browning; third, the gradually receding heat….


Free eBook or Purchase original booklet:



Original circa 1933 brochure is available, A Cooking Secret 200 Years Old. $24.00. The cooking booklet is in good condition, with cover scuffed, corners bent, edges worn, paper creased. All pages present. 24-page booklet. Publisher: Westinghouse. Select “Add to Cart.”

Preferable Cook Book.

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c. 1924: The All-Ways Preferable Cook Book of The South Bend Malleable Range, Select Cooking Recipes, compiled by Miss Ada A. Hillier, Instructor of Domestic Science, South Bend Public Schools.

$19

Text Sample:

…It use to be thought clever for a girl to say: “I don’t know a thing about cooking.” But this is no longer the case. Now the women, young and old, are proud to say: “I can cook a good meal, one you will really enjoy.”

…What is true Kitchen Economy? To put it in as few words as possible, it is this: Provide the Purest and Best Materials and Cook Them Properly.

…If you have anything unpleasant to tell, never mention it at meal time….

Stuffing for Fish
1 cup cracker crumbs
1/4 teaspoonful salt
1/4 teaspoonful pepper
1 teaspoonful chopped onion
1 teaspoonful chopped parsley
1 teaspoonful chopped capers
1 teaspoonful chopped pickles
1/4 cup melted butter
Toss the crumbs in the melted butter, add the other seasonings. This makes a dry, crumbly stuffing.

Scalloped Meat, No. 2
Cut cold meat into small pieces, season to taste, and moisten with gravy. Make in layers with bread crumbs and bake twenty to thirty minutes in a hot oven, or until the crumbs are brown.

Buckwheat Cakes
1 cup white flour
1 1/2 cups buckwheat flour
1/2 teaspoonful salt
1 pint lukewarm water
1/4 cake of yeast, dissolved in a little lukewarm water
Mix all the ingredients together and beat thoroughly. Let rise over night in a warm place. In the morning add one-fourth teaspoonful soda and one tablespoonful sugar. One tablespoonful of butter added to the mixture will prevent the cakes from sticking, without the use of fat on the griddle, if the griddle is just the right temperature.

Bread
In all mixtures in which yeast is used to leaven, bread flour should be used. Wheat and rye are the only two grains that contain gluten of a good quality and of sufficient quantity to make a good loaf of bread. This gluten when separated from the rest of the flour is a grayish yellow, tenacious, elastic mass, and it is the elasticity which makes it so valuable in bread making, for as the gas is formed during the process of fermentation, it stretches, thus holding the gas in.

The best bread is made from the white wheat flour, and the best bread flour is made from the spring wheat, for it contains more gluten than does the winter wheat.

A good bread flour is granular and easily slips through the sieve, while the pastry flour is more solid. It also is of a creamy color.

Liquid, dry or compressed yeast may be used in bread making. The latter makes excellent bread when it can be obtained perfectly fresh. The yeast plant is killed when heated to 212 degrees F.; life is suspended but not utterly destoyed at 32 degrees F. The best temperature for its growth is from 75 to 80 degrees.

Yeast is a microscopic plant of fungus growth which multplies very rapidly under favorable conditions, and by this process of growing causes a chemical change called fermentation.

Alcholic fermentation is that which is produced in substances rich in sugar and starch. Under the influence of warmth and moisture and some ferment (yeast), the starch is converted into sugar and the sugar into alcohol and carbonic acid gas. This is the fermentation that takes place in bread making; the carbonic acid gas seeking to escape lightens the dough. If alcoholic fermentation goes beyond a certain limit, acetic fermentation takes place, in which the alcohol formed is turned into acetic acid and the mixture is sour.

Bread is made by mixing to a dough flour with a definite quantity of milk or water, salt and ferment. Enough sugar should be added to restore the natural sugar of the wheat changed during fermentation. the dough is then kneaded to thoroughly incorporate the ingredients, and is allowed to rise till double in bulk. It is then kneaded a second time to break the large bubbles of gas formed.

It is shaped into loaves and allowed to rise again. If it rise too long, it will be coarse grained; if not long enough, it will be heavy.

Bread is baked (1) to kill the ferment, (2) to make the starch soluble, (3) to drive off the alcoholic and carbonic acid gas, (4) to form a brown crust of pleasant flavor.

the Baking of Bread
…The heat should increase slightly for the first ten minutes, and gradually decrease till the end of the baking. The heat in the center of the loaf should reach 212 degrees, otherwise the starch grains will not be ruptured or the yeast plants killed. The heat changes the starch on the exterior of the loaf to dextrin. When the loaf is removed from the oven, place it where the air will circulate freely around it. Do not cover, if you like a crisp curst. When cold, put it into a clean bread box, without any wrapping, as the latter will give it a musty flavor. The pan for baking bread should not be over four inches wide, four inches deep, and suited in length to the oven. When the loaf is larger than this, there is danger of the temperature in the center of the loaf not reaching 212 degrees F., and the yeast not being killed.

Raw Potato Yeast
One-fourth cupful of flour, one-fourth cupful of sugar, one tablespoonful of salt, three raw potatoes, one to two quarts of boiling water, one cupful or one cake compressed yeast. Pare potatoes and keep in cold water, mix flour, sugar and salt in a large bowl, and grate the potatoes in as quickly as possible, mix at once with a wooden spoon, pour the boiling water directly from the teakettle over them, stirring constantly, and adding enough water to make it consistency of thin starch; if it does not thicken, bring the mixture to the boiling point, strain, and let cool; when lukewarm add yeast; if compressed, dissove in one cupful of water; keep mixture in warm (not hot) place till light, beat well several times at the end of twenty-four hours, put in earthen or glass jars, cover tightly and put in a cool place. This will keep two weeks.

If liquid yeast is used, allow one-half cup to one pint of liquid.

Purchase original booklet:



Original c. 1924 brochure is available, The All-Ways Preferable Cook Book. $19.00. The cooking booklet is in fair condition, with cover chipped, ripped, corners bent, edges worn, interior scribbles, and mellowed pages. All pages present. 96-page booklet, 4″ x 7.25″. Publisher: Malleable Steel Range Mfg. Co. Select “Add to Cart.”

Good Things to Eat.

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1924: Good Things to Eat made with Arm & Hammer Bicarbonate of Soda (Baking Soda) Compiled by Alice Bradley, Principal, Miss Farmer’s School of Cookery, Boston, Mass.

$5

Text Sample:

Making Mixtures Light
Any food that is made from flour and baked, steamed or fried, is more palatable and more digestible when light and porous. This lightnes is produced in three ways: by fermentation, as with yeast in the making of bread and rolls, by using eggs and beating the mixture to enclose air in it as in popovers, sponge cake, cream cakes, and some pound cake, and by chemical action as with bicarbonate of soda combined with other agents. The last means, in which we are most interested, is the simplest as it does away with the time required for the yeast plants to grow and with the beating which is apt to be tiresome….Bicarbonate of soda is used because it contains carbon dioxide gas or carbonic acid gas, as it is sometimes called, which is set free when soda is combined with an acid and a liquid, and heat is applied. These acids are contained in foods like sour milk, molasses, and fruits, or are furnished by chemicals like cream of tartar. Some of these acids act quickly and while the mixture is cold, and some act very slowly until the mixture is heated and begins to cook. When the gas is set free, in its effort to escape, it pushes up the mixture and continuous heat is necessary to cook the flour in the walls of each little hole and keep the mixture light.

Arm & Hammer Soda…contains uniformly over 52 per cent of carbonic acid gas and over 99 per cent of pure bicarbonate of soda….Always sift Arm & Hammer Soda through a fine sifter before measuring to prevent the possibility of a tiny lump getting into the mixture and making a yellow spot because it has not combined with the acid present.

…Never use boiling water to dissolve Arm & Hammer Soda as it will cause some of the gas to escape. For this reason, it is not desirable to dissolve soda in sour milk or molasses as much of the carbon dioxide gas will be lost before the mixture is cooked.

When you have sour milk or buttermilk it may supply all of the acid required with Arm & Hammer Soda to make mixtures light.
The milk also provides the liquid necessary to wet the mixture.

When sour cream is available it may be used with Arm & Hammer Soda in any mixture instead of milk and fat. The sour cream then provides the acid for setting free the gas in the Arm & Hammer Soda, the liquid for wetting the mixture and the shortening for making it tender….

Buttermilk, if sour, may be used in any recipe instead of sour milk.

The acid found in molasses will set free the gas present in Arm & Hammer Soda, as illustrated in the making of gingerbread, brown bread, and molasses cookies.

Boston Brown Bread
Soak overnight
1 cup stale bread crumbs or muffins, etc., broken in pieces, and
1 cup rolled oats in
1 cup thick sour milk and
1 cup water.
In the morning beat until no lumps remain. Add
1 cup molasses
1 cup rye meal
1 cup Graham four and
1 cup corn meal sifted with
1 tablespoon Arm & Hammer Soda and
1 tablespoon salt. Add
1 1/2 cups thick sour milk.
Beat thoroughly, fill greased tins two-thirds full, cover and steam three hours. Dry off in oven if desired.

Use of Honey in Cooking
Strained honey may be used in some mixtures in place of sugar or molasses. Honey has the peculiar characteristic of keeping cake fresh and moist. Little shortening is required, due to the acid present in honey. Because of this acid, a small amount of Arm & Hammer Soda may be used in the dough. No sour milk or baking powder is necessary when honey and Arm & Hammer Soda are used together, and very little soda is required. Honey dough may be kept for some time before it is baked. A delicious cake or cooky may be made ready for the oven in a few minutes, even if you have no eggs, milk, sugar or baking powder in the house.

Eggless, Milkless, Butterless Cake
Put in saucepan
2 cups brown sugar
2 cups hot water
4 tablespoons lard
1 package seedless raisins cut once
2 teaspoons salt
2 teaspoons cinnamon
2 teaspoons cloves. Boil five minutes, when cold, add
2 teaspoons Arm & Hammer Soda dissolved in
1 tablespoon lukewarm water and
3 cups bread flour.
Bake in two loaves at 300 degrees F. for one and a quarter hours.

Purchase original booklet:



Original 1924 brochure is available, Good Things to Eat. $5.00. The cooking booklet is in good condition, with corners bent, edges worn, paper creased. All pages present. 32-page booklet with recipes. Publisher: Church and Dwight Co. Select “Add to Cart.”

Taylor Home Set.

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1921: The Taylor Home Set Book of Recipes for Jelly Making, Canning and Preserving, Home Made Candy, Baking and Roasting, Carefully tested for time, temperature and density.
Taylor Instrument Companies, Rochester, New York

$2

Pastry
…Pie is not readily digestible, because the starch is so coated with fat that little of it is digested until it reaches the lower intestines, which have practically all the work of starch digestion. Therefore it is not desirable to serve it too often, but it is a toothsome dessert for occasional use….

1. In dividing pastes for pies allow more for the upper than for the lower crusts.
2. Roll the paste about one-quarter inch in thickness and make it a little larger than the plate, to allow for shrinkage.
3. Perforate the upper crust, that steam my escape.
4. Insert a cornucopia of writing paper in one of the perforations if juice is apt to overrun the pie (juice will rise in the cornucopia.)
5. In putting two pieces of crust together always brush the under crust with cold water and then press the two together lightly.
6. Never grease a pie tin.
7. Use ice-cold water.

Home-Made Candy
…Candy making is a never-ending source of pleasure to every one participating in it, because it is both fun for the maker and a delight to the partaker. For an evenings entertainment or an afternoon’s enjoyment, what better than candy making. It is one of the few occupations that are as enthusiastically welcome by the children as by adults, for from youth to old age every one loves candy.

Popular thought on the subject of candy making is being revolutionized, as it becomes known that candy is just an essential a food for both children and adults as meat, bread or potatoes. Candy being a pure sweet, a perfect carbohydrate, supplies added energy and needed fuel to keep the body in the best physical condition.

Parents do their children a great injury by denying them pure, wholesome candy, for the growing child requires a large amount of sugar to supply the necessary energy for its almost ceaseless activity.

Home-made candies are much better than factory-made, because of the known source of ingredients, the careful blending of materials and the cleaner surroundings in the kitchen and pantry.

Candy making is a simple or as complex as one chooses to make it. While a large number of utensils can be used, all that is really necessary is a pan, a thermometer and the fire, and of these one is just as essential as the other….

To Color Sugar
To color sugar red, place in a basin one pound of granulated sugar, add a few drops of carmine and spirits of wine. Rub it through the fingers until the mass is of uniform color. Place it on a tin in a warm place to dry, then bottle and keep for use. The above process will color sugar yellow when saffron is used, green when green is used, and violet when violet coloring is used.

Original Booklet:



Original 1921 cookbook is available, The Taylor Home Set. $2.00. The cooking booklet is in poor condition, reading copy only, with ripped front cover, creased pages, stains, page tear. All pages present. 64-pages. Publisher: Taylor Instrument Companies; 6″ X 3″. Select “Add to Cart.”

Light Crust Recipes.

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c. 1935: Light Crust Recipes, A Few Selected Practical Recipes for using Light Crust Flour
Tested and Approved by Mrs. Lenore Standifer, Light Crust Demonstrator
Burrus Mill & Elevsator Co., Fort Worth, Texas

SOLD

(Note: The illustrated musicians appearing on the coobook cover represent the Doughboys, a Texas-Swing-music band that represented Light Crust Flour between 1931 – 1942.)

“For more than 40 years thousands of housewives have used “LIGHT CRUST” flour exclusively and sung its praises to their neighbors to such an extent that “LIGHT CRUST” now stands at the head of the list, as the most dependable and popular flour in the United States. It is therefore to those housewives that we owe our phenomenal success and to them we dedicate this “LIGHT CRUST” recipe book as an appreciation of their patronage.”

Good Flaky Pie Crust
3 cups LIGHT CRUST flour
1/2 teaspoon baking powder
1 teaspoon salt
1 cup lard
Sift flour, baking powder and salt together. Rub in lard and add enough water to moisten and make dough. Do not knead at all, just mix and pat together, divided into fourths to make two pies with top crust or four custard pies. Roll out amount for pie, spread a little soft butter on, fold over twice and roll, pressing into shape for pie.

Original Booklet:

One circa 1935 original booklet is available, Light Crust Recipes, A Few Selected Practical Recipes for using Light Crust Flour $17.00. The booklet is in good condition with heavily worn edges and scuffed. All pages present. 48-pages.

1920s Tried Recipes and How to use them.

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1920s: A Book of Tried Recipes and How To Use Them, compiled by an experienced domestic science teacher and housekeeper sepecially for The Range Eternal for the home.
Engman-Matthews Range Company, South Bend, Indiana

$23/SOLD

Contents
The Processes of Cooking; Measuring; Breading; Bread; Quick Breads; Meats; Poultry; Vegetables; Eggs; Soups; Cheese; Sauces; Entrees; Salads; Cake; Pastry; Frostings; Desserts; Pudding Sauces; Gelatin Desserts; Frozen Mixtures; Preserving Fruits and Vegetables; Candies; Directions for Setting Up and Operating The Range Eternal.

Sample Text

Eggs
…Eggs are largely made up of albumen, so require a very low temperature for cooking, and under no condition should exceed 185 F., or the simmering point of water. Best results are attained if they are kept between 150 and 165 F….

Soup
If a clear sparkling soup is desired, it must not only be strained, but cleared with the white of an egg….

Sauces
…The sauce that is generally used, is of a consistency that results from using two tablespoonfuls of flour to a cup of liquid. The flour may be added to the liquid in several ways, but the way from which the best results are obtained are by melting the butter, adding the flour, mixed with the seasonings, then gradually adding the milk cold, stirring all the time until the boiling point is reached. Any liquid may be used as the foundation of the sauce, as milk, cream, water, stock, wither meat or vegetable, or strained tomatoes….

Cakes
All cakes belong to two classes, sponge cake mixtures or butter cake mixtures. Genuine sponge cake is made light entirely by the air which is beaten into both the yolks and whites of eggs, and the expansion of that air in baking. Because of the large number of eggs used in sponge cakes, they require a slow oven for bakng. Butter cakes are made fine grained by creaming the butter and sugar, and very fine granulated sugar shold be used.

Sample Recipes

Yorkshire Pudding
Mix one cup flour and one-fourth teaspoon salt, adding gradually one cup milk. Add two eggs beaten very light, and beat the mixture two mimutes with a Dover egg beater. Turn into hissing hot iron gem pans and bake in hot oven about twenty minutes, basting after they are well risen with some of the fat from pan in which meat is roasted.

Hamburg Steak
Chop one pound of round or rump steak, add a half teaspoon salt, and a little onion juice if desired. Press the meat closely together into a flat oval cake about three-fourths of an inch thick, have the broiler hot, rub with a bit of fat, and place the meat in the broiler. Cook about eight minutes. Turn once if gas oven is used, turn every ten seconds if broiled over coals. Serve with brown or tomato sauce.

Original Booklet:

A Book of Tried Recipes and How To Use Them. $23.00. The cooking booklet is in good condition with bent cover and pages, spots, and mellowed interior. All pages present. 48-pages.

1920: Jell-o Americas Most Famous Dessert.
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1920: Jell-O, America’s Most Famous Dessert
The Genesee Pure Food Company, LeRoy, N. Y.

$8

Sample Text:
When fruit was plentiful and cheap [the housekeeper] could save on desserts by serving peaches, oranges, berries and apples; now, with high prices for fruit of all kinds, she is seving fruity desserts of Jell-O…. One package of plain Jell-O, that is one made of Jell-O and hot water, will serve six persons. In whipped form of almost any kind, one package will serve from nine to twelve persons. Certainly, it is worthwhile to know these things…

How to Add Fruit
When Jell-O has been dissolved and become cold, fruit and nutmeats can be placed in it in layers or rows, or arranged in any of the fanciful shapes seen in demonstrators’ exhibits, in the following manner:
Pour a little of the Jell-O in the mould, set it in a cold place, and when hardened arrange on it the fresh or canned fruit or the nutmeats chosen for the dessert. Add just enough cold Jell-O to hold the fruit in place and let it harden. Then pour on the rest of the Jell-O, or add more layers of fruit in the same manner as the first one.

New Style Bavarian Creams
Of all forms of whipped Jell-O the Bavarian creams are most popular, and they may well be, for in no other way can these favorte dishes be made so easily and cheaply. Jell-O is whiped with an egg-beater just as cream is, and does not require the addition of cream, eggs, sugar or any of the expensive ingredients used in making old-style Bavarian creams….

Raspberry Bavarian Cream
Wash one box of raspberries and sprinkle with four tablespoonfuls of sugar. Dissolve a package of Raspberry Jell-O in three-fourths pint of boiling water and when cold and still liquid whip to consistency of whipped cream. Then fold in the raspberries and juice. Set in a cold place to harden. Serve with whipped cream and garnish with fresh berries…. Read “How to Whip Jell-O”

How to Whip Jell-O
…Begin to whip the jelly when it is cool and still liquid–before it begins to congeal–and whip till it is of the consistency of whipped cream. Use a Dover egg-beater and keep the Jell-O cold while whipping by setting the dish in cracked ice, ice water or very cold water. A tin or aluminum quart measure is an ideal utensil for the purpose. Its depth prevents spattering, and tin and aluminum admit quickly the chill of the ice or cold water. Add cream or whatever else goes into the dessert after–not before–whipping the Jell-O.
When fruit is to be added, drain the juice from it at the start and measure it. Then dissolve the Jell-O in just enough boiling water to make a pint of liquid when the juice is added. Add the cold juice after dissolving the Jell-O in the boiling water. Whip when cold and still liquid, and then let the Jell-O congeal enough to hold the fruit in place before adding it….You will find that whipped Jell-O is delicious without anything at all added to it, or it can be made up with fruit, fruit juices, nutmeats, cream or a selection from a dozen other good things….

Original booklet:



1920 Jell-O America’s Most Famous Dessert.

One 1920 original booklet is available, Jell-O, America’s Most Famous Dessert $8.00. The booklet is in fair condition with stains, loose pages, mellowed interior. All pages present. 14-page booklet. Click “Add to Cart.”

Betty Crocker

by Rena

Enjoy Old Time Radio Catalog’s mp3 of a 1945 episode of “Betty Crocker Cooking Show of the Air” The voice behind Betty Crocker was Marjorie Child Husted (1892-1986) of the Gold Medal Home Service Department at Washburn Crosby milling company in Minneapolis. The milling company was no stranger to dramatic promotions — they previously hired the famous Maria Parloa to author one of their promotional cookbooks. Around 1924 when the Betty Crocker radio show began, Washburn Crosby joined General Mills.

Betty Crocker links