Post-Civil War and the Gilded Age added home-canning to the preservation practices, instead of just drying and pickling. This industrial age brought more gadgets into the kitchen, and began the abundance of store-bought processed foods.

1870s Kitchen.
1880s Kitchen.
1890s Kitchen.

The following articles contain details of this time period:


Previous Episode:
Victorian Kitchen — Introduction

Later Episodes:
Afternoon Tea

Community Oven

by Rena

Original settlers from the Alps of Northern Italy of the Waldensian Faith immigrated to the US in the 1890s. Besides building their church and homesteads in North Carolina, they also built a community oven which can still be seen along with original buildings at the Trail of Faith open-air museum in Valdese, NC.


by Rena


1860s New Cooking Gadgets

  • Eggbeater with rack-and-pinion movement
  • Chuck wagon 1866

1860s New Foods

  • Perrier water
  • Canned pork & beans
  • Canned soup
  • Tabasco Sauce
  • White Rock Spring Water
  • Peerless Wafer
  • Cold breakfast food (Granula)
  • Gulden Mustard Fish & Chips (England)
  • Folgers coffee (pre-roasted & ground)
  • McDougall flour (English) in US
  • Peanuts as snack food
  • Text printed on “Conversation” candy
  • Fleischmann’s compressed yeast
  • Eggs Benedict (Delmonico, 1860)

1860s New Food Companies

  • Arm & Hammer
  • Cargill
  • Bassett
  • Schrafft
  • DelMonte
  • Bay Sugar Refining
  • Royal Baking Powder
  • Chase & Sanborn
  • Goodman’s Matzohs
  • Ghiardelli
  • Nestle
  • Tobler
  • Armour meat-packing factory: 1868
  • Chicago Union stockyards: 1865
  • Louis-Dreyfus, grain trader

1860s Food Industry Beginnings

  • Pasteurization – sterilization by heat & pressure: 1864
  • Demonstration of starch produced by photosynthesis
  • Roller mills (stone)
  • Flour mill with middling (bran & outer grain layer) purifier
  • “Patent” flour (double ground)
  • Mechanical refrigerator: 1861
  • Ice machine: 1865
  • Ovaltine testing
  • Salmon cannery: 1864
  • Tin can with key opener
  • Thinner steel for cans
  • Machine-cut cans
  • Calcium chloride added to boiling water, speeding canning time
  • US Pretzel bakery 1861

1860s Farming Progress

  • US Department of Agriculture Homestead Act
  • Marsh reaper
  • Check-row corn planter
  • Massachusetts Agricultural College (UMass)
  • British Food & Drugs Act
  • Union starves South during Civil War
  • Wheat futures
  • Wide-scale cattle theft (rustling)
  • Steam trawlers import fish to England (thus, “fish & chips”)

1860s Timeline


by Rena

Baking animation by Rena Goff


1870s New Foods

  • Saccharin
  • Cubed sugar
  • Synthetic vanilla
  • Rootbeer
  • Wheatena
  • Nestle’s Infant Milk Food
  • Milk chocolate
  • Ice cream soda
  • Commercial production of margarine
  • Japanese beef-eating taboo ends (c. 1870)
  • Chewing Gum from chicle
  • Tone Brothers [spices and coffee]

1870s New Cooking Gadgets

  • Can opener with cutting wheel.
  • Four-tined silver fork, beginning the end of eating with knife.
  • Square bottomed paper-bags.

1870s New Food Companies

  • Lipton
  • Pillsbury & Co.
  • F. & J. Heinz
  • Quaker Mills
  • Hills Brothers
  • Grand Union Tea Co.
  • Confectioner’s Journal

1870s Food Industry Beginnings

  • Milking machines
  • Glass milk bottles
  • Orange crates
  • Pressure cooking in food canning: 1874
  • Frozen meat shipments: 1877
  • Mechanical cream separator
  • Porcelain rollers make roller-milling flour (wheat germ removal) standard practice
  • William Underwood first to register U.S. food trademark (Red Devil)

1870s Farming Progress

  • Bison herds disappearing
  • Large US agricultural exports
  • European farm land shortage
  • Quantity banana imports to US
  • Long-distance cattle driving
  • Barbed wire fences
  • Vast US acreage for farming and cattle ranches

1870s Timelines


by Rena

1880s kitchen

1880s School of Cookery

mason jar.

1880s New Cooking Gadgets

Hand cream-separators
Lenox China
Ball-Mason jars introduced [invented in 1857]

1880s New Foods

  • Malted milk
  • Powdered pea and beet soups
  • Evaporated milk
  • Aunt Jemima Pancake Flour
  • Coca-Cola
  • Moxie
  • Dr. Pepper
  • Thomas’s English muffins
  • Oscar Mayer wieners
  • Salada Tea
  • Tetley Tea
  • Log Cabin Syrup
  • Morton’s salt
  • Canned meat and fruit in stores: 1880

1880s New Food Companies

  • McCormick Spices
  • R. T. French
  • Maxwell House
  • B. H. Kroger
  • ConAgra
  • White Lily Foods
  • Lever Brothers
  • Calumet Baking Powder
  • Diamond Crystal Salt
  • American Cereal
  • Manischewitz
  • Pillsbury-Washburn Flour Mills
  • L’Ecole de Cordon Bleu

    1880s Food Industry Beginnings

  • Packaging of grain commodities
  • Efficiencies in railroad meat shipments
  • Pea-viner and podder machine
  • Commercial aluminum production
  • Ice-making plants start replacing ice-cutting industry
  • Self-service restaurant
  • Vending machines for gum 1888

    1880s Farming Progress

  • Long cattle-drives end as railroads enter Texas



by Rena

1899 cook book, American Pure Food Cook Book & Household Economist.

1890s New Cooking Gadgets

  • Electric range (though unreliable)
  • Aluminum saucepan
  • Chantilly silver pattern

1890s New Foods

  • Minute Tapioca
  • Condensed soup
  • Fig Newtons
  • Canned pineapple
  • Knox’s Gelatin
  • Shredded Wheat
  • Canada Dry Ginger Ale
  • Grape Nuts
  • Cream of Wheat
  • Postum
  • Jell-O
  • Tootsie Rolls, 1896
  • Swans Down Cake Flour
  • Uneeda Biscuits
  • Entenmann bakery products
  • Pepsi-Cola
  • Wesson Oil
  • Cracker Jacks
  • Bottled Coca-Cola
  • Crepes Suzettes
  • Oysters Rockefeller
  • Published brownie recipe
  • US brunch fashionable English lunch
  • S&H Food Stamps
  • Public school hot lunches
  • Beef Stroganoff

1890s New Food Companies

  • Quaker Oats
  • Beech-Nut
  • Beatrice Foods
  • National Biscuit
  • Baker’s Coconut
  • Smucker
  • Hobart
  • American Beet Sugar

1890s Food Industry Beginnings

  • Bottle capping machine
  • Vacuum flask
  • Automatic bottle-blowing machine
  • Electric coffee mill
  • Diner
  • Full page food ad in national magazine (Van Camp in 1894)
  • Coca-Cola Company bought for $2,300
  • US pizza parlor
  • 57 Varieties ad campaign
  • Campbell adopts red & white labels (inspired by Cornell football uniforms)

1890s Farming Progress

  • US gasoline tractor
  • Butterfat measurement
  • Wheat futures hedging

1890s Timelines

Historic Bowen Mills photos on Facebook will give you an idea of the activity and events at this fun living museum at 55 Briggs Rd, Middleville, Michigan. 269-795-7530

American History Museum is hosting America’s Kitchens traveling exhibit from Historic New England on Friday, April 1 until October 31, 2011. The exhibit includes a 1759 kitchen, a southwest adobe kitchen and a bright blue 1957 kitchen, and more. Earlier, the exhibit was at the Long Island Museum. Historic New England also has an online exhibit, From Dairy to Doorstep. Like

Historic New England features their 36 historic house museums online. Many of the houses have kitchen photos, and here they are: