1860s

by Rena



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1860s New Cooking Gadgets

  • Eggbeater with rack-and-pinion movement
  • Chuck wagon 1866

1860s New Foods

  • Perrier water
  • Canned pork & beans
  • Canned soup
  • Tabasco Sauce
  • White Rock Spring Water
  • Peerless Wafer
  • Cold breakfast food (Granula)
  • Gulden Mustard Fish & Chips (England)
  • Folgers coffee (pre-roasted & ground)
  • McDougall flour (English) in US
  • Peanuts as snack food
  • Text printed on “Conversation” candy
  • Fleischmann’s compressed yeast
  • Eggs Benedict (Delmonico, 1860)

1860s New Food Companies

  • Arm & Hammer
  • Cargill
  • Bassett
  • Schrafft
  • DelMonte
  • Bay Sugar Refining
  • Royal Baking Powder
  • Chase & Sanborn
  • Goodman’s Matzohs
  • Ghiardelli
  • Nestle
  • Tobler
  • Armour meat-packing factory: 1868
  • Chicago Union stockyards: 1865
  • Louis-Dreyfus, grain trader

1860s Food Industry Beginnings

  • Pasteurization – sterilization by heat & pressure: 1864
  • Demonstration of starch produced by photosynthesis
  • Roller mills (stone)
  • Flour mill with middling (bran & outer grain layer) purifier
  • “Patent” flour (double ground)
  • Mechanical refrigerator: 1861
  • Ice machine: 1865
  • Ovaltine testing
  • Salmon cannery: 1864
  • Tin can with key opener
  • Thinner steel for cans
  • Machine-cut cans
  • Calcium chloride added to boiling water, speeding canning time
  • US Pretzel bakery 1861

1860s Farming Progress

  • US Department of Agriculture Homestead Act
  • Marsh reaper
  • Check-row corn planter
  • Massachusetts Agricultural College (UMass)
  • British Food & Drugs Act
  • Union starves South during Civil War
  • Wheat futures
  • Wide-scale cattle theft (rustling)
  • Steam trawlers import fish to England (thus, “fish & chips”)

1860s Timeline

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